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Biology 152

CHAPTER 21 STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 21 study guide

 

 

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1.  

Which food items are typical of a herbivorous diet? (21.1)



2.  

In which of the following ways are a wolf, a hummingbird, a termite, and a cow alike? (21.1)



3.  

A bulk-feeder would likely _____. (21.1)



4.  

The first stage of food processing is _____. (21.2)



5.  

Which part of a chicken's digestive system grinds food with sand or gravel? (21.3)



6.  

In vertebrates, food is moved along the length of the digestive system by ____________. (21.4)



7.  

Where does salivary amylase come from? (21.5)



8.  

Chemical digestion of carbohydrates begins in the _____. (21.5)



9.  

What is found in a bolus? (21.5)



10.  

 The purpose of the tongue is to ?



11.  

A mutation in the genes for both salivary and pancreatic amylase will greatly affect the chemical digestion of _____. (21.5)



12.  

The pharynx leads to the _____. (21.6)



13.  

Which of these secretes either a digestive enzyme or a precursor to a digestive enzyme? (21.7)



14.  

What is acid chyme ?_____. (21.8)



15.  

How does protein digestion work? (21.8)



16.  

Pepsin is an enzyme produced in the stomach that attacks proteins to break them down into smaller peptide molecules. Which one of the following statements is true about this enzyme? (21.8)



17.  

Which of the following is properly matched with its product? (21.8)



18.  

Which of the following might make the most effective anti-ulcer medication? A chemical that _____. (21.9)



19.  

How is the stomach lining protected from the caustic acid pH of its contents? (21.9)



20.  

An open sore that appears in the stomach due to bacterial infection and to gastric juice digesting the stomach lining is called ____________. (21.9)



21.  

In humans, most nutrient molecules are absorbed by the _____. (21.10)



22.  

The largest variety of digestive enzymes function in the _____. (21.10)



23.  

Gallstone surgery sometimes requires that the gallbladder be removed. Patients are then advised to avoid ingesting large amounts of fat because _____. (21.10)



24.  

The lungs consist of many small air sacs and blood vessels, which greatly increase surface area and improve the transfer of substances through their walls. The structures in the digestive system similar in function to these air sacs and capillaries are the _____. (21.10)



25.  

Imagine that you have eaten a meal containing the following nutrients. Which would NOT have to be digested before being absorbed? (21.10)



26.  

How does the enzyme lipase work in digestion? (21.10)



27.  

Which of these digestive enzymes removes one amino acid at a time from the ends of polypeptide chains? (21.10)



28.  

Which of the following is the actual absorptive surface within the lumen of the small intestine? (21.10)



29.  

The natural antacid produced to protect the intestines against stomach acid is produced in the ____________. (21.10)



30.  

The liver and pancreas add their secretions to the partially digested food produced in the stomach, at the _____. (21.10)



31.  

What is nutrition and digestion? (21.10)



32.  

What is the purpose of the human digestive system? (21.11)



33.  

What relation do indigestible plant fibers, prokaryotes, and vitamins have with the digestive system? (21.11)



34.

When the colon contracts strongly, _____. (21.11)



35.  

Which one of the following organs of the digestive system does NOT produce any secretions that aid in digestion? (21.11)



36.  

Prokaryotes living in our large intestines provide us with _____. (21.11)



37.  

How would you expect the digestive system of a hawk (a carnivore) to compare with that of a sparrow (a seed eater)? (21.12)



38.  

Resting energy use is measured as _____. (21.14)


39.  

What are essential nutrients?

 


40.  

What is the easiest way to meet all of your essential amino acid needs? (21.16)

41.  

It is important to get some vitamin B1 every day, but it is all right if the intake of vitamin A varies a bit. Why? (21.17)

 

42.  

The fat-soluble vitamins include ____________.



43.  

In general, B vitamins function in your body as ____________.



44.  

The main reason we need some minerals and some vitamins is that _____. (21.17)



45.  

____ are needed in the diet as components of teeth and bone, normal muscle and nerve function, water balance, and parts of certain enzymes. (21.18)


46.  

A breakfast cereal advertises that it contains essential vitamins and minerals. In this context, the word "essential" means ____________. (21.18)


47.  

The percent daily value of a nutrient that appears on a food label is based on a diet containing _____ kcal per day. (21.19)

48.  

Let's say that you want to have a heart attack or stroke and thus, if you survive, become a burden on your family. You decide to accomplish this by lowering your HDL levels and raising your LDL levels. Which of these lifestyles would be best suited to helping you achieve your goal? (21.19)

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