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Biology 152

CHAPTER 22 STUDY GUIDE

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Which of the following normally contains the highest concentration of oxygen? (22.1)


2.  

What is breathing? (22.1)


3.  

In order for a body surface to be a respiratory surface, it must be _____. (22.2)



4.  

Which is NOT an essential feature for an animal's gas exchange surface? (22.2)

5. 



6.  

Which respiratory organ is most often found only in fully aquatic animals? (22.3)



7.  

Which of the following in a human is most similar in function to the gill lamellae of a fish? (22.3)



8.  

What is a disadvantage of gas exchange in aquatic environments as compared to gas exchange in terrestrial environments? (22.3)



9.  

What is ventilation? (22.3)



10.  

Countercurrent exchange in the gills of a fish _____. (22.4)



11.  

During evolutionary refinements that led from fish to mammals, why was a shift from gills to lungs necessary? (22.5)



12.  

Which of these gas exchange systems consists of a series of air tubes that branch throughout the body? (22.5)



13.  

Which type of epithelial tissue would you suppose lines the alveoli? (22.6)



14.  

What is the order of passage as air is inhaled during ventilation of the lungs in a typical mammal? (22.6)



15.  

Which one of the following components of the mammalian gas exchange system does NOT have a ciliated surface covered by a thin film of mucus? (22.6)



16.  

The primary functional unit of the human lung is a(n) _____. (22.6)

17.  

What is a function of the human nose? (22.6)

18.  

Humans produce the sounds of language by _____. (22.6)


19.  

What is the function of the mucus that lines the human respiratory system? (22.6)

20.  

Cigarettes contain over _____ different chemicals. (22.7)


21.  

In the United States, the yearly death toll attributable to smoking is about _____. (22.7)

22.  

What can occur as a consequence of smoking? (22.7)

23.  

What is emphysema? (22.7)


24.  

About how many years after quitting smoking does it take for the risk of heart disease and death to return to the levels similar to those seen in people who never smoked? (22.7)



25

The maximum amount of air a person can inhale and exhale is called __________. (22.8)



26.  

What effect does relaxing a tense abdomen during diaphragm contraction have on breathing? (22.8)



27.  

During exhalation in a typical young adult human _____. (22.8)



28.  

Inhalation in humans is achieved by _____. (22.8)



29.  

Whats a true statement about the breathing methods of mammals and birds is true? (22.8)



30.  

What happens when the CO2 level from cellular respiration increases in the blood? (22.9)



31.  

What causes CO2 in the blood to decrease? (22.9)



32.  

Breathing in mammals is controlled by the __________, which monitors __________. (22.9)



33.  

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again? (22.9)



34.  

In the alveoli and lung capillaries, CO2 and O2 are exchanged by means of _____. (22.10)



35.  

What adjustments would clearly make countercurrent exchange more efficient in extracting oxygen from water running through fish gills? (22.10)



36.  

In the blood, most oxygen is carried _____. (22.10)



37.  

Very specifically, the component of blood that carries oxygen is _____. (22.10)



38.  

Most oxygen is carried by the blood ____. Most carbon dioxide is carried by the blood ___. (22.11)



39.  

How does hemoglobin help to buffer the blood? (22.11)



40.  

What stimulates a newborn to take its first breath? (22.12)