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Biology 152

Chapter 24 Study Guide
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1.  

The first line of defense against infection is _____. (24.1)



2.  

Which of the following cells would be a part of the nonspecific, second line of defense? (24.1)



3.  

The process by which a white blood cell engulfs and destroys a bacterium is called _____. (24.1)



4.  

Macrophages and neutrophils defend against pathogens by _____. (24.1)



5.  

Chemicals produced by virus-infected cells that alert neighboring cells to prepare a defense are called _____. (24.1)



6.  

Following tissue damage or the entry of microorganisms, an inflammatory response may be initiated by the _____. (24.2)



7.  

What line of defense against infection first comes into play once a pathogen has breached the body's surface? (24.2)



8.  

Which one of the following is part of the inflammatory response? (24.2)



9.  

As an immediate response to injury, injured cells release _____. (24.2)



10.  

Which of the following is NOT an immediate function of histamine? (24.2)



11.  

What can white blood cells do that help them carry out their defensive functions more effectively? (24.2)



12.  

Functions of the lymphatic system include _____. (24.3)



13.  

A macromolecule produced in the body, which recognizes another molecule as "foreign" to the body, is a(n) _____. (24.4)



14.  

A substance that causes an immune response is called a(n) _____. (24.4)



15.  

If you are allergic to grass pollen, that pollen is a(n) _____. (24.4)



16.  

When you are immune to a disease _____. (24.4)



17.  

A vaccine may contain _____. (24.4)



18.  

Fetal puppies and kittens receive passive immunity from mom by which of the following mechanisms? (24.4)



19.  

Passive immunity can be obtained from _____. (24.4)



20.  

The immune system is initially capable of mounting responses to particular microorganisms because _____. (24.5)



21.  

T and B cells are types of _____. (24.5)



22.  

The region of an antigen to which an antibody binds is termed the _____. (24.6)



23.  

The body produces antibodies complementary to foreign antigens. The process by which the body comes up with the correct antibodies to a given disease is most like _____. (24.7)



24.  

The proliferation of the B lymphocyte to which a specific antigen binds is referred to as _____. (Be specific.) (24.7)



25.  

The idea behind vaccination is to induce _____ without the vaccinated individual having to get sick. (24.8)



26.  

A type of cell that makes immunizations effective is the _____. (24.8)



27.  

During a secondary immune response _____. (24.8)



28.  

Which of the following types of cells initiate a secondary immune response? (24.8)



29.  

Plasma cells _____. (24.9)



30.  

The antigen-binding sites of an antibody molecule are formed from the molecule's variable regions. Why are these regions called variable? (24.10)

They can change their shapes on command to fit different antigens.


31.  

In terms of molecular classes, antibodies are __________. (24.10)



32.  

Which of the following is NOT initiated by the binding of antibodies to antigens? (24.11)



33.  

What do the antibodies secreted by plasma cells do to attack their targets? (24.11)



34.  

Which of the following is NOT true about antibodies? (24.11)

 


35.  

Monoclonal antibodies are used in, or show promise for use in, _____. (24.12)

cancer treatment
the manufacture of genetically modified foods
pregnancy testing
the treatment of cancer and type II diabetes
cancer treatment and pregnancy testing


36.  

Which of the following cell types is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity? (24.13)



37.  

Which of these attack cancer cells? (24.14)



38.  

In a series of immune system experiments, the T cells of baby mice were inactivated. Which of the following would you predict as a likely result? (24.15)



39.  

A group of researchers tested many chemicals and found several that have potential for use in modifying the action of the immune system. Which of the following compounds has the most promise as a drug for inhibiting transplant rejection? (24.15)



40.  

When searching for a donor for an organ transplant, doctors try to match the __________ of the donor and recipient as closely as possible. (24.15)



41.  

HIV attacks a certain type of T cell, thus causing _____. (24.16)



42.  

As an allergy sufferer, _____ are some of my least favorite cells. (24.17)



43.  

Most individuals infected with HIV _____. (24.18)

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