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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Chapter 1 Study Guide

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1.  

What is "biology"? (1.0)

the study of animal structures
the study of life
the study of fossils
the study of how organisms process energy
the study of patterns of inheritance


2.  

What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type? (1.1)

species
population
ecosystem
community
habitat


3.  

Which series of terms is in the sequence of biological organization from the simplest to the most complex? (1.1)

community, population, ecosystem, habitat
tissue, organ system, organ, cell
organism, ecosystem, community, population
cell, tissue, organ, population
molecule, tissue, cell, membrane


4.  

Which of the following is true with regard to the relationship between ecosystems and communities? (1.1)

An ecosystem is a part of a community.
Soil is an ecosystem component; water is a community component.
Plants are components of an ecosystem; animals are components of a community.
Ecosystems include the nonliving components of an environment; communities include only the living components of an environment.
Ecosystems exclude the living components of an environment; communities include the living components of an environment.


5.  

Tissues are composed of _____. (1.1)

organ systems
ecosystems
populations
cells
organs


6.  

Radon is a radioactive gas that seeps into homes from the soil. It is thought to be a leading cause of lung cancer. A research team investigates this theory. They gather large amounts of data on basement radon concentrations and lung cancer rates and conclude that the more radon there is, the more likely is lung cancer. After the study is published, other researchers criticize it by asserting that the studied neighborhoods with higher radon concentrations also have a higher percentage of old people and a higher percentage of cigarette smokers than the low-radon neighborhoods. Both advanced age and cigarette smoking increase the risk of lung cancer. This criticism, if correct, shows that the radon study suffered from ___________. (1.2)

a lack of replication
an unfalsifiable hypothesis
uncontrolled variables
nonsystematic observation
a small sample size


7.  

Which one of the following statements is most clearly inductively derived? (1.2)

If any animals observed require organic molecules as nutrients, then it can be concluded that all animals require organic molecules as nutrients.
If all flying animals are birds, then bats are birds.
Because worms lack bones, they are classified as invertebrates.
A paramecium moves by means of the rhythmic motion of its cilia.
An elephant is warm-blooded because it is a mammal.


8.  

At which point is an investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning? (1.2)

during initial observation(s)
during the formulation of a hypothesis
in establishing a test of a hypothesis
in arranging for peer review
none of the above


9.  

Science itself is NOT capable of _____. (1.2)

determining the physical causes for physical phenomena
formulating testable hypotheses
explaining naturally occurring events
addressing questions of ethical dilemmas
determining the efficacy of a diet


10.  

Discovery science is based on _____. (1.2)

experimentation
inductive reasoning
biology
deductive reasoning
hypothesis testing


11.  

Which of these is a scientific hypothesis? (1.2)

My computer is unplugged.
My excessive urination may mean that I have high blood pressure.
There is a God.
Why do I have a headache?
It is dark out.


12.  

Should an experiment test only one variable at a time? Why or why not? (1.3)

Yes, because otherwise the variables could be confused with the control.
Yes, so that the experimental outcome is clearly due to one identifiable variable.
No, because it takes much longer to do an experiment if you change only one variable at a time.
As long as the experiment is repeated a sufficient number of times, it doesn't matter.
None of the above.


13.  

Experimentation is only one part of the scientific process, but it is a very important step because it _____. (1.3)

gives the investigator a systematic, unbiased result
allows rejection of some alternative hypotheses
ensures that hypotheses can be confirmed with certainty
ensures that the variable being tested is measured without error
gives scientists a chance to work in the laboratory


14.  

Two garden plots were planted with corn. The soil was similar in each, and equal amounts of water were applied to each plot. One plot was fertilized, the other was not. The experimenters measured the yield as bushels of corn from each plot. The plot that did not receive the fertilizer was the _____. (1.3)

experimental plot
control plot
controlled variable
dependent variable
all of the above


15.  

A hypothesis must be testable to be scientifically valid. Being testable means that _____. (1.3)

some conceivable observation could prove the hypothesis incorrect
only a controlled experiment can indicate whether the hypothesis is correct or incorrect
the hypothesis has been proven wrong
there must be several options in the hypothesis to choose from, one of which is correct
if the hypothesis is disproven the experiment was a failure


16.  

A company was testing a new drug they thought would help decrease the risk of transmiting viruses from mother to fetus. In an experiment to test the compound, a worker gave 400 pregnant female rats a small dose of the experimental drug and inoculated each with a type of virus known to cause disease in rats. 400 additional pregnant rats were given only the virus. 203 of the rat pups born to the females that received both the virus and the drug showed no symptoms of the disease; 207 rat pups born to virus-only females showed symptoms. From this test, we can best conclude _____. (1.3)

that the drug is 2% effective and testing on humans should begin
that the drug seems to have little effect on viral transmission at the dosage given
nothing, because no independent variable could be identified
nothing, because no control group was used in the test of the drug
the drug enhances disease progression


17.  

The best method for determining whether bean plants require sodium is to _____. (1.3)

measure the amount of sodium in a few bean plants
measure how fast radioactive sodium enters the plant
look for sodium in leaf tissues using autoradiography
analyze root contents for sodium
grow bean plants with and without sodium


18.  

Actinosphenia elegans is a unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic organism. To which domain does it belong? (1.4)

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Plantae
none of the above


19.  

In which group can multicellular photosynthetic organisms be found? (1.4)

Monera
Fungi
Archaea
Plantae
Animalia


20.  

Protists can be distinguished from the plants and fungi because _____. (1.4)

protists have prokaryotic cells and may be photosynthetic
protists may have chloroplasts and lack nuclei
protists are eukaryotic and include both unicellular organisms and multicellular algae
protists lack DNA
protists are a form of bacteria


21.  

ALL protists possess _____________. (1.4)

chloroplasts
cell walls
zygotes
nuclei
flagella


22.  

Which of the following domains is NOT prokaryotic? (1.4)

Eukarya
Bacteria
Archaea
All are prokaryotic.
None are prokaryotic.


23.  

Which group within the domain Eukarya represents organisms that are generally single-celled? (1.4)

Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
Protists
photosynthesizers


24.  

Eukaryotic organisms that decompose dead organisms and absorb the nutrients are generally found in which kingdom? (1.4)

Archaea
Bacteria
Plantae
Animalia
Fungi


25.  

Humans are members of the _____. (1.4)

domain Eukarya
domain Archaea
domain Bacteria
kingdom Plantae
Fungi


26.  

Humans are members of the _____. (1.4)

domain Bacteria
domain Archaea
Protista
kingdom Plantae
kingdom Animalia


27.  

What is the molecular commonality that is the basis of life's variety? (1.5)

protein
DNA
the ecosystem
natural selection
mutation


28.  

DNA is composed of _____. (1.5)

proteins
steroids
nucleotides
amino acids
fatty acids


29.  

Ultimately, why does one person have blood type A and another person blood type B? (1.5)

They were raised in different environments.
The person with blood type A is taller than the person with blood type B.
They have different DNA sequences.
The person with blood type A is older than the person with blood type B.
They have different proteins.


30.  

A theory is _____. (1.6)

a poorly supported idea that has little backing but might be correct
a well-supported concept that has broad explanatory power
the same thing as a hypothesis
not correct unless it is several years old
none of the above


31.  

Natural selection tends to act at which of the following levels? (1.6)

population
species
phylum
kingdom
class


32.  

A pesticide kills 99.9% of a pest population. What will be the result of the continued application of this pesticide? (1.6)

Every time the pesticide is applied, it will kill 99.9% of the pest population.
Eventually, all of the pest population will be wiped out.
The pest population will reach an equilibrium point at which the pesticide is 50% effective.
Through time, the pesticide will become less effective at killing the pest.
The pesticide will become resistant to the pest.


33.  

Natural selection requires _____. (1.6)

heritable variation only
differential reproductive success only
a small population size only
both heritable variation and differential reproductive success
heritable variation, differential reproductive success, and a small population size


34.  

Evolution by natural selection was formulated by _____. (1.6)

McClintock
Watson
Beadle
Darwin
Crick


35.  

The chemical energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from _____. (1.7)

heat
the decomposition of plants
the sun
carbon dioxide
evolution


36.  

Plants obtain their energy from _____. (1.7)

carbon dioxide
light
chemicals
the soil
water


37.  

What would happen if an ecosystem lacked decomposers? (1.7)

There would be more energy available to plants.
There would be more nutrients available to animals.
There would be more nutrients available to plants.
The ecosystem would stop functioning.
More energy would flow into an ecosystem.


38.  

Energy is incorporated into most ecosystems by _____. (1.7)

fungi
plants
animals
decomposers
humans


39.  

At least _____ of North America's rain forests have been heavily logged. (1.8)

50%
60%
65%
75%
85%


40.  

Which of these statements concerning global warming is correct? (1.7)

The destruction of forests contributes to global warming.
Carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere.
Industrial pollution increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Automobile emissions increase atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
All of the above are correct.