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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Chapter 2 study guide
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1.  

Why are biologists so interested in chemistry? (2.0)

Chemicals are the fundamental parts of all living things.
Most chemicals are harmful to living things.
They know little about life except the chemicals it is made from.
If you understand the chemistry of life, you can make a lot of money.
Everything about life can be known by understanding its chemistry.


2.  

Someone who attempts to understand the functioning of the brain by studying individual brain cells is taking a(n) _____ approach (2.1)

emergent
reductionist
organelle
holistic
none of the above


3.  

There are _____ naturally occurring elements. (2.2)

92
45
230
25
108


4.  

K is the chemical symbol for __________ and P is the symbol for __________. (2.2)

phosphorus ... sodium
sodium ... potassium
potassium ... phosphorus
magnesium ... phosphorus
iron ... potassium


5.  

Which one of the following is NOT one of the four most common elements found in living systems? (2.2)

H
N
C
Ne
all of the above


6.  

A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical procedures is a(n) _____. (2.2)

molecule
element
compound
buffer
cell


7.  

Which of the following statements is true about compounds? (2.3)

Twenty-five compounds are essential to life.
They are smaller than any one element.
They have polarity.
They contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio to each other.
All of the above.


8.  

Which of the following is the smallest in volume? (2.4)

the nucleus of an oxygen atom
a water molecule
a proton
an ice crystal
the electron cloud of an oxygen atom


9.  

Which one of the following has negligible mass? (2.4)

proton
neutron
electron
atom
element


10.  

Which one of the following subatomic particles has appreciable mass and lacks a charge? (2.4)

proton
neutron
electron
element
molecule


11.  

The number of protons in an uncharged atom _____. (2.4)

equals the number of electrons
equals the number of neutrons
varies with the different isotopes
equals the number of electrons in the outer orbital of the atom
determines its mass number


12.  

Consider a hypothetical atom with an atomic number of 4 and a net electronic charge of +1. It has 4 protons. How many neutrons does this atom have? (2.4)

2
4
8
The answer cannot be determined from the information.
none of the above


13.  

A particular carbon isotope has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic weight of 14. The respective number of neutrons, protons, and electrons it has is _____. (2.4)

6, 8, 6
6, 6, 8
8, 6, 6
8, 6, 8
8, 6, 4


14.  

An element has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 8 electrons. Its atomic number and its mass number, respectively, are _____. (2.4)

8 and 16
8 and 17
9 and 16
9 and 17
16 and 8


15.  

Two atoms of the same element must have the same number of _____. (2.4)

neutrons
protons
electrons
neutrons plus protons
protons plus electrons


16.  

An uncharged atom of nitrogen (atomic number = 7) has ___________. (2.4)

7 neutrons
7 protons and 7 neutrons
7 neutrons and 7 electrons
7 protons and 7 electrons
7 valence electrons


17.  

Isotopes of an element will always differ in _____. (2.4)

atomic number
atomic mass number
number of electrons
all of the above
none of the above


18.  

Phosphorus–32 (radioactive) has __________ than phosphorus–35 (normal). (2.4)

3 more neutrons
3 more protons
3 fewer neutrons
3 fewer protons
three more atoms


19.  

The most common form of calcium has 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 20 electrons. Which of the following elements would be an isotope of calcium? (2.4)

an atom with 21 protons, 20 neutrons, and 21 electrons
an atom with 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 18 electrons
an atom with 20 protons, 21 neutrons, and 20 electrons
none of the above
all of the above


20.  

Which one of the following always has a positive charge? (2.4)

proton
neutron
electron
atom
element


21.  

Changing the number of _____ would change an atom into an atom of a different element. (2.4)

bonds formed by an atom
electrons circling the nucleus of an atom
protons in an atom
particles in the nucleus of an atom
neutrons in an atom


22.  

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that makes radioactive tracers useful in medical diagnoses and clinical research? (2.5)

They are incorporated into reactions in living material.
They are easily detectable in minute amounts.
They damage or destroy molecules.
Living cells cannot distinguish them from nonradioactive isotopes.
They can be used with PET scanners.


23.  

Researchers studying the effects of toxic wastes knew that animals were poisoned by the heavy metal cadmium, but they wanted to know where cadmium accumulated in the body. They could find out by _____. (2.5)

tracing the movement of cadmium isotopes in test animals
measuring the size of cadmium atoms
finding out whether cadmium atoms form ionic or covalent bonds
finding out whether cadmium is acidic in water
determining the number of bonds formed by cadmium atoms


24.  

The chemical bonding and reactivity characteristics of an element depend mostly on the _____. (2.6)

number of electrons in its outer shell
number of electron shells present in the atoms
mean energy level of its electrons
degree to which it has more or fewer electrons than protons
number of protons plus the number of neutrons


25.  

Some groups of elements react chemically in similar ways. For example, the chemical reactions of sodium and the chemistry of lithium are similar, as are the chemistries of chlorine and iodine. These similar chemistries are caused when different elements have similar ___________. (2.6)

atomic size
numbers of outer-shell electrons
numbers of electrons
energy content per electron
atomic number


26.  

For most atoms, a stable configuration of electrons is attained when the atom ___________. (2.6)

has as many protons as neutrons
has moved all its electrons to its outermost shell
achieves a zero net charge
has 8 electrons in its outermost shell
none of the above


27.  

Atomic oxygen has an atomic number of 8. It has __________ electrons in its outermost electron shell. (2.6)

2
6
8
10
none of the above


28.  

An atom that normally has _____ in its outer shell would tend not to form chemical bonds with other atoms. (2.6)

1 electron
3 electrons
4 electrons
6 electrons
8 electrons


29.  

When the proton number and electron number are unequal, the atom or molecule _____. (2.7)

forms a covalent bond with another atom
is an ion
is an isotope.
gains or loses a proton
gains or loses a neutron


30.  

A sodium atom has a mass number of 23. Its atomic number is 11. How many electrons does it have if it is not an ion? (2.7)

11
12
22
23
34


31.  

Fluorine atoms tend to take electrons from any atoms that come near. As a result, fluorine atoms _____. (2.7)

tend to become positively charged
are nonpolar
do not react readily with other atoms
tend to form ionic bonds
are not very electronegative


32.  

Ionic bonds form as a result of ___________. (2.7)

attraction between atoms that have opposite charges
attraction between hydrogen and other atoms that share electrons unequally
sharing of electron pairs between atoms
sharing of single electrons between atoms
the motion of electrons


33.  

Which of these describes a covalent bond? (2.8)

Two or more atoms share electron pairs.
It involves an atom that gains an electron.
Molecules linked by covalent bonds are less dense when in solid form than when in liquid form.
A hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge is attracted to another atom with a partial negative charge.
It involves an atom that loses an electron.


34.  

A polar covalent bond is a bond that _____. (2.9)

is found only in H2O
is found only in molecules containing oxygen
shares electrons equally between atoms
ionizes
has shared electrons pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, thereby producing slight charges on the molecule.


35.  

Which is NOT involved in, or is NOT relevant to, hydrogen bonding? (2.9)

hoarding of electrons by one atom more than another
electronegativity
attraction between unlike partial charges
loss of electrons
polar molecules


36.  

Hydrogen bonds occur when ___________. (2.9)

a molecule with partial charges contacts a molecule without partial charges
a molecule with a low molecular weight is completely enclosed in a molecule with high molecular weight
two atoms achieve stable electron configurations by sharing electrons with each other
partial opposite charges on molecules come close enough to attract each other
none of the above


37.  

A covalent bond is likely to be polar if _____. (2.9)

the two atoms sharing electrons are equally electronegative
one of the atoms sharing electrons is much more electronegative
it is between two atoms that are both very strong electron acceptors
the two atoms sharing electrons are of the same element
it is between two atoms that are both very strong electron donors


38.  

In a group of water molecules, hydrogen bonds form between _____. (2.9)

two hydrogen atoms in different water molecules
the oxygen atoms in different water molecules
the oxygen atom in one molecule and a hydrogen atom in another molecule
the hydrogen atoms in a single water molecule
none of the above


39.  

The partial charges on a water molecule occur because of _____. (2.9)

the unequal sharing of electrons between hydrogen and oxygen
the achievement of a stable configuration by one atom of a bond but not by the other partner
covalent bonding
ionic bonding
the high electronegativity of hydrogen


40.  

Water is a polar molecule. This means that _____. (2.9)

the opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges
water molecules are linear, like a pole
water is one of the many nonpolar molecules
the atoms in water have equal electronegativities
all of the above


41.  

A hydrogen bond ___________. (2.10)

is one in which two hydrogens bond to each other
is one in which hydrogen is strongly attracted to a positively charged atom
is a function of nonpolar interactions
is weak
is one of the strongest bonds known


42.  

Water molecules have a polarity that allows them to bond to each other with loose bonds called _____. (2.10)

hydrogen bonds
ionic bonds
acid bonds
nonpolar bonds
none of the above


43.  

What do cohesion and surface tension have in common with reference to water? (2.11)

All are results of the structure of the hydrogen atom.
All are produced by covalent bonding.
All are properties related to hydrogen bonding.
All have to do with ionic interactions.
All are aspects of a crystalline structure.


44.  

The tendency of water molecules to stick together _____. (2.11)

provides the surface tension that allows some insects to walk on water
is called cohesion
keeps water moving through the vessels in a tree trunk
acts to moderate temperature
all of the above


45.  

Water resists temperature change because _____. (2.12)

large bodies of water cannot store heat
heating water absorbs energy by disrupting the hydrogen bonds before evaporation can occur
evaporation of water heats the surface it leaves
hydrogen bonding increases water's ability to vaporize
none of the above


46.  

Because the molecules of water are farther apart in ice than in liquid water, _____. (2.13)

ice floats
ice is denser than liquid water
ice expands when it melts
ice vaporizes before liquid water does
all of the above


47.  

Cells are surrounded by water, and cells themselves are about 70-95% water. As a result, _____. (2.14)

the temperature of living things tends to change relatively slowly
a variety of nutrient molecules are readily available as dissolved solutes
waste products produced by cell metabolism can be easily removed
dissolved substances can be easily transported within the cell, or between cells in multicellular organisms
all of the above


48.  

The most widely effective solvent for organisms is a material that is _____. (2.14)

polar
nonpolar
ionic
pigmented
volatile


49.  

Sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water because water molecules _____. (2.14)

have a high specific heat
lose electrons
are polar
have a pH near 7
are less dense than NaCl molecules


50.  

Adding acid to a solution ____.(2.15)

increases the hydrogen ion concentration and raises the pH
increases the hydrogen ion concentration and lowers the pH
decreases the hydrogen ion concentration and raises the pH
decreases the hydrogen ion concentration and lowers the pH
either increases or decreases the pH, depending on the original acidity


51.  

Which of the following dissociations is that of an acid? (2.15)

H2O --> H+ + OH-
NaOH --> Na+ + OH-
HF --> H+ + F-
NH3 + H+ --> NH4+
HCO3- + H+ --> H2CO3


52.  

A glass of grapefruit juice, at pH 3, contains _____ H+ as a glass of tomato juice, at pH 4. (2.15)

one-tenth as much
half as much
twice as much
three times as much
ten times as much


53.  

An acid is _____. (2.15)

any compound with a pH
any compound that accepts hydrogen ions
a material that resists pH changes
a compound that donates hydrogen ions to a solution
a solution with a pH between 7 and 14


54.  

Something that resists a change in pH is called a(n) _____. (2.15)

isoproton
buffer
proton sink
acid
base


55.  

Adding a base tends to _____ of a solution. (2.15)

lower hydrogen ion concentration and lower the pH
lower hydrogen ion concentration and increase the pH
increase hydrogen ion concentration and lower the pH
increase the hydrogen ion concentration and increase the pH
lower the hydroxide ion concentration and lower the pH


56.  

Pure water has a pH of 7, but acid precipitation has a pH close to 3. This means that acid rain has a concentration of hydrogen ions that is __________ times the hydrogen ion concentration of pure water. (2.15)

0.0001
0.25
4
10,000
-4


57.  

A pH of 6 is how many times more acidic than a pH of 9? (2.15)

300
1,000
3
100
none of the above


58.  

Select the statement that best describes a buffer. (2.15)

A buffer accepts hydrogen ions when they are in excess and donates hydrogen ions when they have been depleted.
A buffer causes acidic solutions to become alkaline, and alkaline solutions to become acidic.
A buffer prevents the pH of a solution from changing when an acid or base is added.
A buffer stabilizes the pH of a solution by preventing acids or bases from dissociating.
Buffered solutions are always neutral, with a pH of 7.


59.  

Which of the following statements is true about acid precipitation? (2.16)

It can be eliminated if we burn fossil fuels instead of using solar or nuclear power.
It affects bodies of water but has little effect on the land.
It has the most pronounced effect on lakes and streams in the early spring.
Building taller smokestacks can clean it up.
None of the above.

   


----

2002 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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