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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

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1.  

Select the hydrocarbon from the following choices. (3.1)

C3H8
CO2
C6H12O6
H2CO3
CCl2F2


2.  

Which is an organic molecule? (3.1)

Ne
O2
CH4
NaCl
H2O


3.  

Which element is most particularly associated with organic chemistry? (3.1)

carbon
sulfur
nitrogen
potassium
oxygen


4.  

Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because _____. (3.1)

carbon is the central atom of carbon dioxide, a necessary molecule for photosynthesis
carbon is the central atom in urea, a molecule used by many living organisms to transport wastes from the body
each carbon atom can form up to four covalent bonds with a wide variety of bond angles
carbon can combine with hydrogen to form hydrocarbons
all of the above


5.  

Citric acid makes lemons taste sour. Which of the following is a functional group that would cause a molecule like citric acid to be acidic? (3.2)

hydroxyl
hydrocarbon
amino
carbonyl
carboxyl


6.  

Which of these is found in amines? (3.2)

R–COOH
R–COH
R–OH
R–NH2
R–PO4


7.  

Choose the pair of terms that completes this sentence: Hydroxyl is to ____ as ____ is to amine. (3.2)

carbonyl ... carboxyl
ketone ... amino
carbon ... nitrogen
aldehyde ... ketone
alcohol ... amino


8.  

Although the structures of the functional groups important to life vary in chemical structure, they share one thing in common: They _____. (3.2)

all contain oxygen
all have at least one double bond
cause the carbon to which they are attached to become an asymmetric carbon, and they convert the molecule into an isomer
all are hydrophilic and increase the organic compound's water solubility
unite the skeleton into a closed ring


9.  

Ethanol, propanol, and methanol are three simple alcohols. They can be grouped together because they _____. (3.2)

all share the same functional group: a hydroxyl
are soluble in water
are soluble in nonpolar solvents
all contain a carbonyl group
increase the acidity of solutions


10.  

The ionized or dissociated carboxyl group may be written as _____. (3.2)

–S -
–O -
–COO -
–NH4 -
–C=O -


11.  

Choose the pair of terms that complete this sentence about functional groups in organic chemistry: Carboxyl is to __________ as __________ is to base. (3.2)

acid ... carbonyl
base ... carbonyl
acid ... amino
base ... amino
None of these choices is correct.


12.  

What is the process by which cells link monomers together to form polymers? (3.3)

hydrolysis
monomerization
protein formation
coiling
dehydration synthesis


13.  

In a hydrolysis reaction, _____. In this process, water is _____. (3.3)

a polymer breaks up to form monomers ... consumed
a monomer breaks up to form polymers ... produced
monomers are assembled to produce a polymer ... consumed
monomers are assembled to produce a polymer ... produced
a polymer breaks up to form monomers ... produced


14.  

The four main categories of macromolecules in a cell are _____. (3.3)

proteins, DNA, RNA, and steroids
monosaccharides, lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins
proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
nucleic acids, carbohydrates, monosaccharides, and proteins
RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates.


15.  

Which one of the following molecules is a carbohydrate? (3.4)

C51H98O6
C45H84O8PN
C60H100O50
C22H49O10N5
C25H43O


16.  

Carbohydrates are mainly used in our bodies _____. (3.4)

for membrane construction
as structural molecules, such as hair and fingernails
for building the genetic material
as fuel
for lipid storage


17.  

One characteristic shared by sucrose and maltose is _____. (3.5)

they are polysaccharides
they are all monosaccharides
they are all disaccharides
they all contain fructose
they are all indigestible by humans


18.  

Which of these has the highest perceived sweetness? (3.6)

lactose
glucose
sucrose
maltose
aspartame


19.  

Cellulose is a _____ made of many _____. (3.7)

polypeptide ... monomers
carbohydrate ... fatty acids
polymer ... glucose molecules
protein ... amino acids
lipid ... triglycerides


20.  

Generally, animals cannot digest the linkages between the glucose molecules in cellulose. How then do cows get enough nutrients from eating grass? (3.7)

They have to eat a lot of it.
Microorganisms in their digestive tracts hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose.
Cows and other herbivores are exceptions and make some cellulose-digesting enzymes.
The flat teeth and strong stomach of the herbivores break the cellulose fibers so the cows get enough nutrition from the cell contents.
All of the above.


21.  

In what polysaccharide form do plants store sugar to be available later for energy? (3.7)

glycogen
cellulose
starch
protein
fatty acids


22.  

The complex carbohydrate that you are most likely to have eaten recently is _____. (3.7)

chitin
starch
glucose
lactose
ribose


23.  

A polysaccharide that we use for storing energy in our muscles and livers is _____. (3.7)

glucose
glycogen
starch
chitin
cellulose


24.  

Which one of the following is NOT a function of carbohydrates (as a class)? (3.7)

structural support
energy storage
energy source
enzymatic catalysis
All are carbohydrate functions.


25.  

Which one of the following components of a tossed salad will pass through the human digestive tract with the least digestion? (3.7)

sugar (in the dressing)
oil (in the dressing)
starch (in the croutons)
cellulose (in the lettuce)
protein (in the bacon bits)


26.  

A glucose molecule is to starch as _____. (3.7)

a steroid is to a lipid
a protein is to an amino acid
a nucleic acid is to a polypeptide
a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid
an amino acid is to a nucleic acid


27.  

Lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they _____. (3.8)

are much larger
are not truly polymers
do not have specific shapes
do not contain carbon
contain no nitrogen atoms


28.  

Which is the correct term for compounds that do not mix with water? (3.8)

phospholipids
hydrophobic
hydrophilic
protein
hydrogen bonded


29.  

Nutritionally, saturated triglycerides are considered to be less healthful than unsaturated. What is one major difference between them? (3.8)

Saturated triglycerides are fats; unsaturated are carbohydrates.
Saturated triglycerides have more hydrogens than unsaturated.
Saturated triglycerides have more double bonds than unsaturated.
Saturated triglycerides are liquid at room temperature.
All of the above.


30.  

A fatty acid containing at least two double bonds is called _____. (3.8)

unsaturated
cholesterol
hydrophilic
dehydrogenase
saturated


31.  

Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid by ___________. (3.8)

adding hydrogens
adding chemicals to retard spoilage
chilling and refrigeration
adding animal fats to them
inducing the formation of peptide bonds


32.  

Hydrogenated vegetable oils are more like animal fats than are other plant oils. Because they ____ than other plant oils, they can contribute to cardiovascular disease. (3.8)

contain fewer double bonds
contain more double bonds
contain more sodium
are less soluble in water
contain less hydrogen


33.  

The lipids that form the main structural component of cell membranes are _____. (3.9)

triglycerides
proteins
cholesterol
carbohydrates
phospholipids


34.  

Cholesterol belongs to which class of molecules? (3.9)

proteins
amino acids
lipids
carbohydrates
nucleic acids


35.  

Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build their body mass. Why is this considered a problematic practice? (3.10)

Anabolic steroids inhibit the body's production of normal sex hormones.
Anabolic steroids can cause mood swings and depression.
Anabolic steroids can increase cancer risk.
Anabolic steroids can result in cardiovascular problems.
All of the above.


36.  

The ovalbumin in egg white can be classified as which type of protein? (3.11)

structural
transport
storage
contractile
signal


37.  

Protein molecules are polymers of _____. (3.12)

DNA molecules
chromosomes
ribosomes
amino acid molecules
photosynthesis molecules


38.  

Which of the following do nucleic acids and proteins have in common? (3.12)

They are both made of amino acids.
Their structures contain sugars.
They are hydrophobic.
They are large polymers.
They each consist of four basic kinds of subunits.


39.  

Which of these is found in amino acids? (3.12)

R–PO4
R–COH
R–OH
R–NH2
–C=O


40.  

To what does the term "polypeptide" specifically refer? (3.13)

organic molecules linked by dehydration synthesis
organic monomers covalently bonded
amino acids linked by hydrolysis
carbohydrates with a hydrogen bond holding them together
none of the above


41.  

The peptide bond is _____. (3.13)

a hydrogen bond
an ionic bond
a covalent bond
a bond between two monosaccharides
none of the above


42.  

Which of the following would probably NOT be affected when a protein is denatured? (3.14)

primary structure
secondary structure
hydrogen bonds
tertiary structure
All of the above must be affected for the protein to be denatured.


43.  

Enzyme molecules require a specific shape to perform their catalytic function. Which of the following might alter the protein shape? (3.14)

denaturing the protein
making changes to the concentration of salt in the environment
heating the protein
making changes to the pH of the environment
all of the above


44.  

The "primary structure" of a protein refers to _____. (3.15)

the alpha helix or pleated sheets
the interactions among the R-groups of the amino acids
coiling due to hydrogen bonding between amino acids
the interactions among two or more polypeptides
the number and sequence of amino acids


45.  

The alpha helix and pleated sheet represent which level of protein structure? (3.16)

primary structure
secondary structure
tertiary structure
quaternary structure
pentiary structure


46.  

The overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide is called the _____. (3.17)

double helix
primary structure
secondary structure
tertiary structure
quaternary structure


47.  

How does a protein's quaternary structure differ from other levels of protein structure? (3.18)

It involves two or more polypeptide chains.
It takes the form of an alpha helix.
It is described by the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
It depends on interactions among a polypeptide's R groups.
It takes the form of a pleated sheet.


48.  

Based on the way nitrogen bases pair, you would expect the percentage of ___ to be equal to the percentage of ____. (3.20)

A ... T
A ... G
T ... G
A ... C
T ... C


49.  

How does DNA differ from RNA? (3.20)

DNA is larger.
One of their nitrogenous bases is different.
They contain different sugars.
DNA consists of two strands in a double helix.
All of the above are differences.


50.  

A nucleotide is made of which of the following chemical components? (3.20)

a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a pentose sugar
a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a phosphate group
a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar
a nitrogenous base, a fatty acid, and an amino acid
glycerol and fatty acids


51.  

A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture _____. (3.20)

DNA
proteins
cellulose
fatty acids
sucrose

   


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2002 Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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