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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Chapter 19 study guide

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1.  

The two major groups of primates are _____. (19.1)

monkeys and anthropoids
prosimians and apes
monkeys and apes
prosimians and anthropoids
Old World monkeys and New World monkeys


2.  

If you were to observe a monkey in a zoo, which characteristic would indicate a New World origin for that monkey species? (19.1)

distinct seat pads
forward-facing eyes
use of the tail to hang from a tree limb
flat nails on their digits
nostrils that are narrow and close together


3.  

The earliest primates were most similar to modern _____. (19.1)

ground-dwelling hominids
arboreal anthropoids
ground-dwelling prosimians
arboreal prosimians
ground-dwelling anthropoids


4.  

Humans and the slender loris, a prosimian, share many traits that probably evolved in our early primate ancestors, including _____. (19.1)

opposable big toes
an arboreal way of life
opposable thumbs
culture
bipedalism (upright walking)


5.  

Humans, apes, and monkeys are classified together as _____. (19.1)

hominids
anthropoids
hominoids
brachiators
Australopithecinae


6.  

Primates are distinguished from other mammals by __________. (19.1)

opposable thumbs, nails, and good depth perception
fur, claws, and small litters
good depth perception, mammary glands, and single births
placental reproduction, opposable thumbs, and good depth perception
long tails used for balance, good depth perception, and opposable thumbs


7.  

Since humans colonized Madagascar, about 2,000 years ago, _____ out of about 50 lemur species have become extinct. (19.1)

6
12
18
24
30


8.  

The prosimian and anthropoid lineages were diverging _____ million years ago. (19.1)

65
50
40
25
5


9.  

Old World and New World lineages diverged over _____ million years ago. (19.1)

65
50
40
25
5


10.  

The ancestor of apes evolved from Old World monkeys about _____ million years ago. (19.1)

65
50
40
25
5


11.  

The lineage that led to humans diverged from the one that led to chimpanzees about _____ million years ago. (19.1)

65
50
40
25
5


12.  

Anthropoids include _____ but not _____. (19.1)

gibbons ... gorillas
lemurs ... humans
monkeys ... lemurs
humans ... australopithecines
Old World monkeys ... New World monkeys


13.  

The modern genera of apes include ______. (19.2)

gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees
lemurs and lorises
tarsiers and gorillas
Old World monkeys and New World monkeys
New World monkeys and orangutans


14.  

Humans are most closely related to _____. (19.2)

orangutans
gibbons
lorises
chimpanzees
gorillas


15.  

Hominoids include _____ but not _____. (19.3)

humans ... monkeys
apes ... australopithecines
monkeys ... humans
chimpanzees ... gorillas
humans ... apes


16.  

Hominids include _____ but not _____. (19.3)

orangutans ... monkeys
chimpanzees ... orangutans
humans ... Neanderthals
australopithecines ... great apes
humans ... australopithecines


17.  

The evolution of humans included all of these EXCEPT _____. (19.3)

long-term care of offspring
the evolution of an opposable thumb
bipedal posture
increased brain size
reduced sexual dimorphism


18.  

Scientists who study human evolution are called __________. (19.3)

paleoanthropologists
microbiologists
meteorologists
virologists
mycologists


19.  

Homo erectus __________. (19.3)

followed H. habilis
preceded H. habilis and produced no tools
was identified by its lack of a supraorbital ridge
males were much larger than H. erectus females
none of the above is correct


20.  

Which of the following correctly lists probable ancestors of modern humans from the oldest to the most recent? (19.3)

Homo erectus, Australopithecus, Homo habilis
Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus
Australpithecus, Homo erectus, Homo habilis
Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Australopithecus
Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Australopithecus


21.  

There is evidence that hominids evolved at least _____ years ago. (19.3)

50 million
6 million
4 million
1.8 million
100,000


22.  

Which of the following traits distinguishes hominids from apes? (19.4)

the use of tools
the use of fire
an enlarged brain (relative to body size)
bipedalism (upright walking)
the absence of a tail


23.  

__________ arose very early in hominid evolution; __________ evolved more recently. (19.4)

Large brains ... prominent brow ridges
Large brains ... upright posture
Upright posture ... forward-looking eyes
Upright posture ... large brains
None of the above are correct.


24.  

Bipedalism is associated first with what hominid? (19.4)

australopithecines, such as Lucy
Neanderthals
Neanderthals, although they were stooped in posture
all primates
Homo erectus


25.  

The oldest clearly hominid fossil dates to about _____ years ago. (19.4)

25 million
4 million
2.5 million
1.8 million
10,000


26.  

The first hominid known to make tools is(was) _____. (19.5)

Australopithecus afarensis
Homo sapiens
Homo habilis
Australopithecus africanus
Homo erectus


27.  

What was the earliest hominid to have an enlarged brain (relative to body size)? (19.5)

Ardipithecus
Australopithecus
Homo habilis
Homo erectus
Neanderthal


28.  

Relative to Homo habilis, Homo erectus _____. (19.5)

was taller and bipedal.
was taller and had a larger brain
was distributed over a narrower geographic range
exhibited a greater degree of sexual dimorphism
was bipedal and had a larger brain


29.  

The first Homo erectus fossils to be found out of Africa date to about _____ years ago. (19.5)

25 million
4 million
2.5
1.8 million
10,000


30.  

Based on the small degree of sexual dimorphism that they exhibit, some anthropologists think that Homo erectus was _____. (19.5)

polyandrous
monoecious
polygynous
monosomic
monogamous


31.  

Some anthropologists think that modern races of Homo sapiens evolved from separate populations of archaic H. sapiens in different geographic areas. How, then, do proponents of this multiregional hypothesis explain the great degree of genetic similarity among modern humans? (19.6)

The same mutations occurred in populations in different locations.
Modern humans evolved from Homo erectus.
All Homo sapiens populations were shaped by similar environments.
There probably was interbreeding among neighboring populations.
Modern races of humans are not at all genetically similar.


32.  

The multiregional and replacement hypotheses for the origin of modern humans agree that _____. (19.6)

Homo erectus had an African origin
modern Homo sapiens originated only in Africa
Neanderthals are the ancestors of modern humans in Europe
Australopithecines migrated out of Africa
North America had the first population of modern humans


33.  

Which one of the following statements best fits the replacement hypothesis about the origin of modern humans? (19.6)

Homo sapiens evolved from H. erectus in Africa and then migrated elsewhere.
Australopithecus migrated out of Africa, then diverged into separate populations.
The Neanderthals were the missing link between apes and humans.
Homo sapiens arose from H. erectus populations in several different areas.
Homo habilis left Africa and then evolved into H. sapiens.


34.  

Analysis of the Y chromosome of males from different geographic regions indicates that the spread of modern humans out of Africa occurred about _____ years ago.

4 million
2.5 million
1.8 million
100,000
10,000


35.  

Unlike modern humans, Neanderthals _____; but like modern humans, they were _____. (19.6)

were poor toolmakers ... bipedal
were short and stocky ... capable of abstract thought
were found only in Africa ... capable of abstract thought
gave rise to Homo erectus ... skilled toolmakers
were bipedal ... skilled toolmakers


36.  

Which of these is NOT one of the major milestones in the evolution of Homo sapiens? (19.7)

the evolution of bipedalism
the evolution of an opposable thumb
the evolution of a period of prolonged parental care of offspring
the evolution of a large brain
none of the above


37.  

The aspect of culture that was common to both australopithecines and species of Homo was the _____. 19.8

scavenging-gathering-hunting stage
machine age
technology age
information age
agricultural stage


38.  

Modern humans reached Australia about _____ years ago. 19.8

1.8 million
100,000
50,000
30,000
50 years


39.  

The development of _____ was accompanied by the origin of permanent settlements. (19.9)

hunting
machines
cars
agriculture
the plow


40.  

The third stage of human culture, the one in which we currently live, is the _____. (19.10)

hunting stage
scavenging age
machine age
gathering stage
agricultural stage


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