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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Chapter 21 study guide

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1.  

Which food items are typical of a herbivorous diet? (21.1)

eggs, insects, fruit
nuts, leaves, berries
insects, worms, beetles
mice, snakes, birds
decomposed dung, rotted vegetation, soil bacteria


2.  

In which of the following ways are a wolf, a hummingbird, a termite, and a cow alike? (21.1)

All are omnivores.
All are substrate-feeders.
All are ingestive feeders.
All are carnivores.
All are herbivores.


3.  

A bulk-feeder would likely _____. (21.1)

sieve vast quantities of plankton from the surrounding water
have claws and jaws, tentacles, pincers, fangs, or teeth
absorb nutrients through its body surface
suck fluids from a living host
eat what it lives in


4.  

The first stage of food processing is _____. (21.2)

mechanical breakdown
elimination
digestion
absorption
ingestion


5.  

Which part of a chicken's digestive system grinds food with sand or gravel? (21.3)

gastrovascular cavity
gizzard
crop
pharynx
stomach


6.  

In vertebrates, food is moved along the length of the digestive system by ____________. (21.4)

active transport across cell membranes
peristalsis
diffusion and osmosis
sequential contraction of bands of skeletal muscles
all of the above


7.  

Where does salivary amylase come from? (21.5)

pancreas
mouth
small intestine
stomach
liver


8.  

Chemical digestion of carbohydrates begins in the _____. (21.5)

mouth
stomach
esophagus
small intestine
large intestine


9.  

What is found in a bolus? (21.5)

gastrin
glycoprotein
acid chyme
sphincter valves
food before it is chewed


10.  

The tongue does all of the following EXCEPT ____________. (21.5)

taste food
manipulate food within the mouth
shape food into a bolus
secrete saliva
push food into the pharynx to begin swallowing


11.  

A mutation in the genes for both salivary and pancreatic amylase will greatly affect the chemical digestion of _____. (21.5)

carbohydrates
proteins
fats
nucleic acids
all of the above


12.  

The pharynx leads to the _____. (21.6)

trachea and esophagus
mouth and stomach
esophagus and small intestine
nasal cavity and colon
esophagus and stomach


13.  

Which of these does NOT secretes either a digestive enzyme or a precursor to a digestive enzyme? (21.7)

small intestine
esophagus
salivary glands
pancreas
stomach


14.  

Acid chyme _____. (21.8)

contains digested fat
is a mush made from boluses and hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the pancreas and duodenum
contains food and gastric juice and moves through the pyloric sphincter
causes gastric ulcers
passes into the large intestine, where water is removed


15.  

Which of the following is an INACCURATE statement regarding protein digestion? (21.8)

It begins in the stomach.
It involves pepsin, which is produced by chief cells in the stomach.
It is dependent on HCl from parietal cells of the stomach.
It is initiated when pepsin splits polypeptide chains into smaller polypeptides.
It involves aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, and dipeptidase in the final stages of amino acid liberation.


16.  

Pepsin is an enzyme produced in the stomach that attacks proteins to break them down into smaller peptide molecules. Which one of the following statements is true about this enzyme? (21.8)

The activity of pepsin will speed up in the small intestine because the pH becomes less acidic.
Pepsin will continue to work at the same rate as it moves through the intestines until all the protein is broken down.
Pepsin will cease to function in the small intestine as the pH is neutralized by basic secretions from the pancreas.
Pepsin will cease to function in the small intestine because it gets diluted by other enzymes produced by the pancreas.
The activity of pepsin will speed up in the small intestine because the pH becomes less acidic, and pepsin will continue to work at the same rate as it moves through the intestines until all the protein is broken down.


17.  

Which of the following is properly matched with its product? (21.8)

peristalsis ... heartburn
mucous cells ... pepsinogen
parietal cells ... gastrin
chief cells ... vomiting
acid chyme backflow ... heartburn


18.  

Which of the following might make the most effective anti-ulcer medication? A chemical that _____. (21.9)

stimulates parietal cells
kills bacteria in the stomach
inhibits epithelial cells in the stomach that produce mucus
stimulates the secretion of bile
stimulates chief cells


19.  

How is the stomach lining protected from the caustic acid pH of its contents? (21.9)

It releases a hormone called gastrin, which stops gastric juice secretion.
Mucous cells secrete a protective lubricant into the stomach.
The stomach lining is not protected from acid and frequently develops ulcers as a result.
Parietal cells secrete a protective buffer to neutralize hydrochloric acid.
The acid is quickly neutralized when it combines with pepsinogen to make pepsin.


20.  

An open sore that appears in the stomach due to bacterial infection and to gastric juice digesting the stomach lining is called ____________. (21.9)

heartburn
acid chyme
a gastric ulcer
gastric secretion nodule
none of these


21.  

In humans, most nutrient molecules are absorbed by the _____. (21.10)

stomach
liver
small intestine
large intestine
pancreas


22.  

The largest variety of digestive enzymes function in the _____. (21.10)

large intestine
oral cavity
stomach
gallbladder
small intestine


23.  

Gallstone surgery sometimes requires that the gallbladder be removed. Patients are then advised to avoid ingesting large amounts of fat because _____. (21.10)

the gallbladder makes bile, which makes it easier to digest fats
without the bile produced by the gallbladder, fats cannot be enzymatically hydrolyzed
the gallbladder produces the hormone gastrin
the gallbladder stores large quantities of bile, releasing it when fats reach the small intestine
fats first enter the gallbladder before moving to the liver


24.  

The lungs consist of many small air sacs and blood vessels, which greatly increase surface area and improve the transfer of substances through their walls. The structures in the digestive system similar in function to these air sacs and capillaries are the _____. (21.10)

villi
colon and rectum
gastric glands
high-density lipoproteins
sphincters


25.  

Imagine that you have eaten a meal containing the following nutrients. Which would NOT have to be digested before being absorbed? (21.10)

protein
polysaccharide
disaccharide
nucleic acid
amino acid


26.  

How does the enzyme lipase work in digestion? (21.10)

It combines with HCl in the stomach to digest starch.
It finishes the work of pancreatic amylase by hydrolyzing disaccharides.
It assists the enzyme team that hydrolyzes polypeptides.
Lipases hydrolyze DNA and RNA into nucleotides.
It works with bile salts to hydrolyze fat to fatty acids and glycerol.


27.  

Which of these digestive enzymes removes one amino acid at a time from the ends of polypeptide chains? (21.10)

carboxypeptidase
amylase
nuclease
trypsin
chymotrypsin


28.  

Which of the following is the actual absorptive surface within the lumen of the small intestine? (21.10)

circular folds
blood capillaries
liver
fingerlike villi
microvilli


29.  

The natural antacid produced to protect the intestines against stomach acid is produced in the ____________. (21.10)

stomach
liver
esophagus
pancreas
mouth


30.  

The liver and pancreas add their secretions to the partially digested food produced in the stomach, at the _____. (21.10)

stomach
small intestine
appendix
large intestine
mouth


31.  

Identify the correct statement about nutrition and digestion. (21.10)

Feeding and "digestion" are synonyms.
Chemical digestion precedes physical digestion in wolves.
Absorption involves nutrients passing through intestinal walls.
Elimination rids the body of overly large nutrient molecules.
Monomers are hydrolyzed into macromolecules during digestion.


32.  

Which of the following statements about the human digestive system is true? (21.11)

Pancreatic secretions are stored in the gallbladder.
The pancreas, liver, and pyloric sphincter secrete digestive juices.
Water is removed from undigested food after it leaves the small intestine.
Peristalsis keeps digesting food in the small intestine for up to six hours.
Food passes from the esophagus through the pharynx into the stomach.


33.  

What relation do indigestible plant fibers, prokaryotes, and vitamins have with the digestive system? (21.11)

These are washed out of the body in the 7 liters of water that daily pass into the digestive system.
In the presence of certain vitamins, prokaryotes are able to digest plant fibers.
The prokaryotes cause rapid peristalsis, resulting in constipation, which retains plant fibers and vitamins in the lower intestine.
These are the contents of the large intestine.
These move through the terminal portion of the colon together and are voided as feces.


34.  

When the colon contracts strongly, _____. (21.11)

food moves down the duodenum
chyme moves about in the stomach
peristalsis moves the bolus from mouth through larynx
peristalsis moves the bolus from mouth through pharynx
the urge to defecate is created


35.  

Which one of the following organs of the digestive system does NOT produce any secretions that aid in digestion? (21.11)

large intestine
small intestine
stomach
pancreas
liver


36.  

Prokaryotes living in our large intestines provide us with _____. (21.11)

carbohydrates
vitamins
minerals
calories
amino acids


37.  

How would you expect the digestive system of a hawk (a carnivore) to compare with that of a sparrow (a seed eater)? (21.12)

The hawk would have a larger gastrovascular cavity.
The sparrow's digestive system would be longer.
The hawk would have a gizzard, but the sparrow would not.
The hawk's digestive system would be longer.
The hawk would lack a rumen.


38.  

Resting energy use is measured as _____. (21.14)

basal monetary return
basal metabolic rate
basal melanin production rate
metered bile production
basal metallurgical rate


39.  

Which of the following are considered essential nutrients?

  1. certain carbohydrates
  2. certain fatty acids
  3. certain amino acids
  4. cholesterol
(21.15)

1, 2, 3, and 4
1, 2, and 3
2, 3, and 4
2 and 3
3


40.  

What is the easiest way to meet all of your essential amino acid needs? (21.16)

Eat beans.
Eat apples.
Eat tomatoes.
Eat corn.
Eat an egg.


41.  

It is important to get some vitamin B1 every day, but it is all right if the intake of vitamin A varies a bit. Why? (21.17)

Vitamin B1 is an essential nutrient, and vitamin A is not.
Vitamin A can be stored by the body, but vitamin B1 cannot.
The body needs much larger amounts of vitamin B1 than vitamin A.
The body requires vitamin B1, but vitamin A is just an "extra."
Vitamin A is water-soluble, and vitamin B1 is fat-soluble.


42.  

The fat-soluble vitamins include ____________. (21.17)

vitamins A, D, E, and K
vitamin A and the B group
the B vitamins and vitamin C
vitamins C, D, and E and K
riboflavin and niacin


43.  

In general, B vitamins function in your body as ____________. (21.17)

a source of energy
structural components of cell membranes
a source of minerals
coenzymes
antioxidants


44.  

The main reason we need some minerals and some vitamins is that _____. (21.17)

they are required for the Calvin cycle
they are an important source of organic molecules
they play a role in enzyme function
they provide energy for cellular metabolism
they shuttle energy from one reaction to another


45.  

____ are needed in the diet as components of teeth and bone, normal muscle and nerve function, water balance, and parts of certain enzymes. (21.18)

Starches
Fats
Minerals
Nucleic acids
Vitamins


46.  

A breakfast cereal advertises that it contains essential vitamins and minerals. In this context, the word "essential" means ____________. (21.18)

that it contains the essence of vegetables used to extract the nutrients
that they can be made in the body but it is important to eat food containing these nutrients so that we do not waste essential energy in making them
that the nutrients must be supplied in the diet and cannot be made in the body
that it is important that you believe the package and buy the product
nothing


47.  

The percent daily value of a nutrient that appears on a food label is based on a diet containing _____ kcal per day. (21.19)

1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
2,000


48.  

Let's say that you want to have a heart attack or stroke and thus, if you survive, become a burden on your family. You decide to accomplish this by lowering your HDL levels and raising your LDL levels. Which of these lifestyles would be best suited to helping you achieve your goal? (21.19)

Don't exercise, smoke, and do not eat any red meat.
Don't exercise, eat fish, and eat vegetables.
Exercise, don't smoke, eat fish, and consume liquid vegetable oils.
Exercise, eat fish, smoke, and drink alcohol in moderation.
Don't exercise, smoke, and eat an all-red-meat diet


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