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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Chapter 27 Study Guide
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Chapter 27 Study Guide

 
1.  
 

The gamete of a female has __________ chromosomes as(than) the gamete of the male.

the same number of
fewer
more
all of the above
none of the above


2.  
 

Which reproductive method is used most frequently by mammals? (27.1)

fragmentation
budding
regeneration
external fertilization
internal fertilization


3.  
 

A hermaphrodite is an animal that _____.

fuses with one of the opposite sex
contains both male and female reproductive systems in its body
can create zygotes of either sex
reproduces only asexually
does all of the above


4.  
 

In general, what is the ploidy (n) state of human cells?

diploid except for gametes
haploid except for zygotes
diploid early in life, becoming haploid with age
haploid early in life, becoming diploid with age
diploid in females; haploid in males


5.  
 

How does a zygote differ from an ovum? (27.1)

A zygote has more chromosomes.
A zygote is smaller.
A zygote consists of more than one cell.
A zygote is much larger.
A zygote divides by meiosis.


6.  
 

Suppose you wanted to get started in the animal-breeding business. You could start out with only one of most of the following animals, but you would have to start with at least two _____. (27.1)

sea anemones
frogs
tapeworms
whiptail lizards
sea stars


7.  
 

External fertilization occurs mostly in _____. (27.1)

land animals
insects
aquatic animals
animals that reproduce asexually
mammals


8.  
 

Bartholin's gland _____.

contains spongy tissue that fills with blood during arousal
secretes progesterone and estrogen to maintain pregnancy
covers the vagina before sexual intercourse
secretes lubricating fluid
produces secretions that contribute to semen


9.  
 

Into which structure is a human oocyte released upon ovulation? (27.2)

uterus
oviduct
ovary
body cavity
cervix


10.  
 

How do ovulated oocytes get into the uterus? (27.2)

Fimbriae sweep over the oviduct.
Cilia within an oviduct create currents that sweep the egg toward the uterus.
Since ovaries are within the uterus, the ovulated egg is already within the uterus.
Muscular projections of the oviduct grasp the oocyte and force it into the uterus.
The oocyte actively swims through the oviduct, using its flagellum.


11.  
 

On its way to fertilize a human egg, a sperm cell does not have to pass through which of the following? (27.2)

oviduct
vagina
ovary
vas deferens
cervix


12.  
 

Which of the comparisons between oogenesis and spermatogenesis is NOT accurate? (27.3)

Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes both egg and sperm development.
Luteinizing hormone triggers ovulation in females and androgen production in males.
Releasing hormone triggers the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH in both males and females.
Primary oocytes and primary spermatocytes follow a similar pattern of development through meiosis.
An ovum is not produced in the absence of sperm, but sperm are produced regardless of what the ova are doing.


13.  
 

In males, FSH _____. (27.3)

is not produced; it is a female hormone
is directly responsible for facial hair growth beginning at puberty
is produced by the hypothalamus
stimulates the production of sperm cells in the testes
stimulates the release of semen by the prostate gland during ejaculation


14.  
 

The hormone that initiates the development of specialized cells in the ovaries of women and triggers androgen production by the testes of men is _____.

estrogen
progesterone
somatropin
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
luteinizing hormone (LH)


15.  
 

In humans, the testes are located outside the abdominal cavity within the scrotum because _____. (27.3)

the elevated pressure within the abdominal cavity would collapse the small passageways within the testes
this location allows for a shorter pathway to the urethra
blood flow to the scrotum is not interrupted during erection
sperm are unable to mature properly at the higher temperatures found within the abdominal cavity
all of the above


16.  
 

Which part of the male reproductive tract warehouses sperm prior to their exit from the male's body? (27.3)

epididymis
vas deferens
glans
urethra
seminal vesicle


17.  
 

What structure is part of both the excretory and reproductive systems in males? (27.3)

ureter
urethra
seminal vesicle
urinary bladder
vas deferens


18.  
 

After being produced, human sperm continue their development in a structure called the ____________.

vas deferens
epididymis
seminal vesicle
prostate gland
bulbourethral gland


19.  
 

Where is one LEAST likely to find complete semen (in which all the components are present)?

in the vagina of a woman who's trying to become pregnant
in the epididymis
at the junction of the bulbourethral duct and the urethra
at the tip of the penis
in the urethra


20.  
 

Meiosis to produce the female egg cell is initiated in the _____. (27.4)

ovary
vagina
uterus
oviduct
cervix


21.  
 

From a single cell, oogenesis will produce ____________. (27.4)

four ova (eggs)
four spermatozoa
an ovum and three polar bodies
a primary oocyte
four polar bodies


22.  
 

Assume 2n = 12 in a hypothetical species. In gametogenesis, the number of chromosomes in a developing sperm cell would be __________ and in a first polar body would be __________. (27.4)

6 ... 6
3 ... 3
6 ... 3
3 ... 6
none of the above


23.  
 

In spermatogenesis, each primary spermatocyte gives rise to __________ sperm. (27.4)

one
two
four
eight
millions of


24.  
 

A large number of hormones function in the human menstrual cycle, but only two of them are called female sex hormones. These are _____. (27.4)

follicle-stimulating hormone and estrogen
follicle-stimulating hormone and progesterone
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
progesterone and estrogen
releasing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone


25.  
 

Where do developing sperm cells undergo meiosis? (27.4)

in the epididymis
in the vas deferens
in the seminal vesicle
in the seminiferous tubules
in the prostate gland


26.  
 

What does an ovum have that the sperm also has? (27.4)

very little cytoplasm
an external food source
a huge mitochondrion
a haploid set of chromosomes
a sac full of digestive enzymes


27.  
 

At what point does the secondary oocyte complete meiosis? (27.4)

when the luteinizing hormone triggers ovulation
after it is penetrated by a sperm cell
when the secondary oocyte implants in the endometrium of the uterus
when the egg is fully surrounded by sperm and semen
when acrosomal enzymes begin to break down the egg's jelly coat


28.  
 

The gamete of the female has __________ cytoplasm as(than) the male gamete. (27.4)

the same amount of
more
less
all of the above
none of the above


29.  
 

The amount of cytoplasm found in an egg is __________ that found in the polar bodies.

greater than
equal to
less than
all of the above
none of the above


30.  
 

After ovulation occurs, the empty follicle _____. (27.5)

can be recycled to produce more eggs
changes into the corpus luteum and makes hormones
quickly degenerates
immediately initiates menstruation
becomes the site of the implantation of a fertilized egg


31.  
 

What is the source of the hormones that, when suddenly absent, are directly responsible for the onset of menstruation? (27.5)

hypothalamus
pituitary
ovarian follicle
corpus luteum
Bartholin's glands


32.  
 

Which is a true statement about luteinizing hormone in the female reproductive system? (27.5)

It is produced by the hypothalamus.
It causes mitosis of the primary oocyte.
It inhibits ovulation.
It triggers development of endometrium in the corpus luteum.
It is responsible for mediating the production of estrogen and progesterone simultaneously.


33.  
 

Which of the following hormones is the first to increase significantly every 28 days or so, initiating the ovarian cycle? (27.5)

progesterone
follicle-stimulating hormone
estrogen
luteinizing hormone
human chorionic gonadotropin


34.  
 

The ovary undergoes several structural changes or events during the human female's menstrual cycle. Which one of the following sequences is correct, beginning with the oocyte? (27.5)

corpus luteum development ... follicle development ... ovulation
follicle development ... ovulation ... corpus luteum development
corpus luteum development ... ovulation ... follicle development
follicle development ... corpus luteum development ... ovulation
none of the above


35.  
 

If a woman wants to become pregnant, what is the optimal day on which to have sexual intercourse? (27.5)

one week before ovulation
three days before ovulation
the day of ovulation
the day before menstruation is due to begin
one week after ovulation


36.  
 

Birth control pills contain synthetic estrogen and progesterone. How might these hormones prevent pregnancy? (27.5)

They trigger premature ovulation, before an egg is mature.
They cause the lining of the uterus to be sloughed off.
They cause the corpus luteum to degenerate.
They keep the pituitary from secreting FSH and LH, so ovulation does not occur.
They prevent the monthly development of the uterine lining.


37.  
 

A peak in ______ triggers ovulation around the ______ day of the monthly cycle. (27.5)

progesterone ... 14th
LH ... 7th
FSH ... 2nd
LH ... 14th
estrogen ... 20th


38.  
 

The plateau phase of human sexual response is characterized by _____. (27.6)

increases in breathing and heart rates
the vaginal secretion of lubricating fluids
the relaxation of muscles
erection of the penis and clitoris
rhythmic contractions of the reproductive structures


39.  
 

PID _____. (27.7)

is caused as the result of STDs caused by bacterial infections
can cause sterility
can cause pain
can cause scarring
all of the above


40.  
 

The drug RU-486 was developed in France and is widely used in Europe as a method of birth control. Its introduction to the United States has been controversial, however. The drug is taken after sexual intercourse. It blocks implantation, and in this sense prevents pregnancy in a manner similar to _____. (27.8)

the familiar birth control pill used for the last 30 years
spermicidal foam
an intrauterine device (IUD)
tubal ligation
a cervical cap


41.  
 

Which one of the following is the LEAST effective method of birth control? (27.8)

vasectomy
the pill
IUD
rhythm method
condom


42.  
 

A vasectomy is an effective technique for birth control in males because it _____. (27.8)

reduces the alkaline secretions in the semen, and the sperm are then destroyed in the female reproductive tract
causes the prostate gland to enlarge and seal off the ejaculatory duct
severs the capillaries to the spermatozoa, which then die
severs the capillaries of the testes and prevents the arrival of pituitary hormone
severs the route used by the sperm to exit the male's body


43.  
 

Which of the following most reduces the chances of both conception and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases? (27.8)

condom
birth control pill
diaphragm
intrauterine device
withdrawal


44.  
 

After a sperm penetrates an egg, a fertilization envelope forms. This membrane _____. (27.9)

secretes important hormones
enables the fertilized egg to implant itself in the wall of the uterus
prevents more than one sperm from entering the egg
attracts additional sperm to the egg
is responsible for the formation of the gastrula


45.  
 

Sperm has several components; the function of the acrosome is to _____. (27.9)

produce base to neutralize the acidic environment of the female reproductive system
metabolize the sugars provided by the semen for energy
release an enzyme that breaks down the membrane of the ovum
propel the sperm as they swim through the fluid of the female reproductive tract
chemically identify the proper oviduct


46.  
 

Which part of the human sperm carries a haploid set of chromosomes? (27.9)

head
neck
middle piece
acrosome
vitelline layer


47.  
 

During cleavage the single large cell of the zygote is converted into a _____. (27.10)

multicellular embryo consisting of smaller cells
three-layered embryo called a gastrula
multicellular embryo with a yolk plug and an archenteron
multicellular embryo consisting of a vitelline layer and a zygote
fetus


48.  
 

Cell divisions called __________ proceed so rapidly in the developing embryo that there is no growth of the cells between divisions. (27.10)

meiosis
binary fission
cleavage
fragmentation
none of these


49.  
 

One difference between the blastula and gastrula stages of development is that _____. (27.10)

blastula cells are more differentiated than gastrula cells
there are many more cells in a blastula
the blastula consists of more cell layers
the blastula is a solid ball of cells, but the gastrula is hollow
the gastrula consists of three tissue layers


50.  
 

Which one of the following describes the correct sequence of stages during embryogenesis? (27.10)

cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation
cleavage, gastrulation, blastula formation
blastula formation, gastrulation, cleavage
blastula formation, cleavage, gastrulation
gastrulation, cleavage, blastula formation


51.  
 

Which of the following events is NOT part of gastrulation? (27.11)

Cells migrate.
The blastocoel is obliterated.
The archenteron is formed.
Cells are sorted into three cell layers.
Cells differentiate into tissues.


52.  
 

The three embryonic tissue layers—ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm—are first present at the __________ stage. (27.11)

neural fold
nine-cell stage
gastrula
blastula
four-cell stage


53.  
 

During gastrulation, a(n) __________ forms. (27.11)

eye
simple digestive cavity
nervous system
heart
none of the above


54.  
 

The nervous system is derived from _____. (27.12)

ectoderm
endoderm
mesoderm
both ectoderm and mesoderm
all three embryonic tissue layers


55.  
 

The skeleton and muscles form from the embryonic _____. (27.12)

endoderm
ectoderm
mesoderm
haploderm
endoderm and ectoderm


56.  
 

What is the embryonic origin of the linings of the digestive tube and respiratory systems? (27.12)

endoderm
ectoderm
mesoderm
both endoderm and mesoderm
all three embryonic tissue layers


57.  
 

All of the following structures are derived from mesoderm EXCEPT the _____. (27.12)

notochord
pancreas
heart
dermis of skin
muscles


58.  
 

Someone may have webbed toes because _____. (27.13)

of a failure of gestation
of a failure of apoptosis
of a failure of pattern formation
they are displaying characteristics of humans' avian ancestry
of a failure of menstruation


59.  
 

Cells relocated from the optic cup of an amphibian embryo to an abnormal position result in the development of a lens at the graft location. This is an example of _____. (27.14)

developmental potential
induction
pattern formation
apoptosis
gastrulation


60.  
 

Cell division by itself would only produce a formless heap of cells. Pattern formation involves __________. (27.15)

cellular differentiation
differential gene expression
chemical signaling
positional signals
all of the above


61.  
 

One early, and inexpensive, approach to infertility is to test a woman's urine for a hormone that would indicate a high probability of ovulation. What hormone is this test kit designed to detect? (27.16)

oxytocin
follicle-stimulating hormone
testosterone
luteinizing hormone
prolactin


62.  
 

Pregnancy tests detect a hormone in a woman's urine that is present only when an embryo is developing in her uterus. This hormone is secreted by _____. (27.16)

the ovary
the embryo
a follicle
the pituitary
the endometrium


63.  
 

This is the precise site of embryo implantation in a normal pregnancy. (27.16)

vagina
cervix
oviduct
endometrium
follicle


64.  
 

Three or four of the following are correct descriptions of the functions of the placenta. Which one, if any, is NOT a function of the placenta? (27.16)

providing oxygen to the fetus
carrying wastes from the fetus to the mother's circulatory system
providing antibodies to the fetus
obtaining nutrients from the mother's bloodstream
All of the above are functions of the placenta.


65.  
 

If you wanted to examine the extraembryonic membranes surrounding a mouse embryo, you would have to cut through which of the following to see all the others? (27.16)

yolk sac
amnion
endoderm
allantois
chorion


66.  
 

The allantois is an extraembryonic membrane that develops from the _____.

trophoblast cells
yolk sac
chorion
amnion
none of these


67.  
 

Which one of the following embryonic membranes found in birds and reptiles functions in waste disposal? (27.16)

allantois
amnion
chorion
fertilization envelope
yolk sac


68.  
 

During the first trimester _____. (27.17)

the mother may feel movements, and fetal activity may be visible through the abdominal wall
an ultrasound can be performed to determine the gender of the fetus
the fetus's eyes are open
the fetus is most vulnerable to exposure to drugs and radiation
the fetus weighs about 3.5 kg


69.  
 

The uterine contractions during labor are stimulated by _____. (27.18)

estrogen and progesterone
oxytocin and prostaglandins
prolactin and releasing hormone


70.  
 

Which of these can cause female infertility? (27.19)

scarring of the reproductive tract, such as that caused by STDs
failure to ovulate
the production of antibodies that react with sperm
blockage of the oviducts
all of the above


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