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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Chapter 22 Study Guide Questions

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1.  

Which of the following normally contains the highest concentration of oxygen? (22.1)

body cells
inhaled air
air in the alveoli
blood entering the lungs
air leaving the lungs


2.  

What is breathing? (22.1)

the exchange of gases in mitochondria
transport of gases by the circulatory system
the exchange of gases in chloroplasts
the exchange of gases between the circulatory system and interstitial fluid (and then body tissues)
the exchange of gases in the lungs


3.  

In order for a body surface to be a respiratory surface, it must be _____. (22.2)

thick, dry, and covered with hair
moist and glandular
expansive
thin and moist
internal


4.  

Which is NOT an essential feature for an animal's gas exchange surface? (22.2)

large surface area in proportion to body size
a protective, wear-resistant covering
thin cell layers
living cells
continuous moistness


5.  

What is the gas exchange organ of earthworms? (22.2)

gills
a tracheal system
skin
book lungs
lungs


6.  

Which respiratory organ is most often found only in fully aquatic animals? (22.3)

tracheae
lungs
capillaries
skin surface
gills


7.  

Which of the following in a human is most similar in function to the gill lamellae of a fish? (22.3)

vocal cords
bronchioles
alveoli
trachea
diaphragm


8.  

What is a disadvantage of gas exchange in aquatic environments as compared to gas exchange in terrestrial environments? (22.3)

Aquatic gas exchange is energetically more efficient than terrestrial gas exchange.
Gas exchange organs do not operate well when moist.
Water has a lower concentration of oxygen than does air.
Countercurrent flows do not operate in aquatic environments.
Animals tend to lose water in aquatic environments.


9.  

What is ventilation? (22.3)

a mechanism by which gases are exchanged between the lungs and blood
a mechanism that regulates blood pH
a mechanism by which gases are exchanged between the blood and body tissues
a mechanism by which oxygen binds to hemoglobin
a mechanism that increases the contact between respiratory surfaces and the environment


10.  

Countercurrent exchange in the gills of a fish _____. (22.4)

speeds up the flow of water through the gills
maintains a gradient that enhances diffusion
enables the fish to obtain oxygen while swimming backward
means that blood and water flow in the same direction
interferes with the efficient absorption of oxygen


11.  

During evolutionary refinements that led from fish to mammals, why was a shift from gills to lungs necessary? (22.5)

Gills are not as efficient as lungs in picking up oxygen.
Gills are too small to service a mammal's need for oxygen.
Protecting gas-exchange surfaces from desiccation is difficult in terrestrial environments.
Air has a higher oxygen content than water, so gills were no longer necessary.
Gills work only in water; lungs work only on land.


12.  

Which of these gas exchange systems consists of a series of air tubes that branch throughout the body? (22.5)

skin
tracheal system
lungs
book lungs
gills


13.  

Which type of epithelial tissue would you suppose lines the alveoli? (22.6)

stratified squamous epithelium
simple columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
stratified cuboidal epithelium
stratified columnar epithelium


14.  

What is the order of passage as air is inhaled during ventilation of the lungs in a typical mammal? (22.6)

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, bronchiole, bronchus, trachea, alveolus
nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, alveolus
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, alveolus
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchiole, bronchus, alveolus
nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, larynx, bronchus, bronchiole, alveolus


15.  

Which one of the following components of the mammalian gas exchange system does NOT have a ciliated surface covered by a thin film of mucus? (22.6)

trachea
midsize to small bronchioles
bronchi
major bronchioles
alveoli


16.  

The primary functional unit of the human lung is a(n) _____. (22.6)

alveolus
capillary tuft
trachea
bronchus
bronchiole


17.  

What is a function of the human nose? (22.6)

gas exchange with the trachea
gas exchange with capillaries
filtering air
holding up glasses
producing mucus


18.  

Humans produce the sounds of language by _____. (22.6)

modulating the flow of air through the trachea
modulating the flow of air through the nose
contracting and relaxing the diaphragm
regulating the flow of blood to the lungs
tensing and relaxing the vocal cords as air flows past them


19.  

What is the function of the mucus that lines the human respiratory system? (22.6)

gas exchange
to protect the airways from the acidity of environmental air
to trap contaminants before they can get to the lungs
to facilitate language production
to keep the alveoli moist


20.  

Cigarettes contain over _____ different chemicals. (22.7)

100
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000


21.  

In the United States, the yearly death toll attributable to smoking is about _____. (22.7)

130,000
230,000
330,000
430,000
1,000,000


22.  

Which of these can occur as a consequence of smoking? (22.7)

emphysema
pancreatic cancer
cardiovascular disease
frequent coughing
all of the above


23.  

What is emphysema? (22.7)

a type of cancer
a type of heart disease that involves enlargement of the heart
the coughing that results from the accumulation of mucus in the airways to the lungs
the black color that is found in the lungs of long-term smokers
the result of the destruction of alveoli


24.  

About how many years after quitting smoking does it take for the risk of heart disease and death to return to the levels similar to those seen in people who never smoked? (22.7)

one
five
ten
fifteen
twenty


25.  

The maximum amount of air a person can inhale and exhale is called __________. (22.8)

vital capacity
tidal volume
residual capacity
oxygen consumption
end tidal volume


26.  

What effect does relaxing a tense abdomen during diaphragm contraction have on breathing? (22.8)

It has no significant effect.
It decreases the residual volume of air in the lungs.
It becomes more difficult to expand the lungs.
The diaphragm moves higher into the chest cavity.
It increases the vital capacity of the lungs


27.  

During exhalation in a typical young adult human _____. (22.8)

the diaphragm contracts and flattens, moving downward
the rib cage returns to a resting position
alveolar pressure becomes lower than atmospheric pressure
the volume of the chest cavity increases
the lungs expand


28.  

Inhalation in humans is achieved by _____. (22.8)

contraction of muscles in the lungs
contraction of the lungs
relaxation of the diaphragm and muscles between the ribs
contraction of the diaphragm and muscles between the ribs
relaxation of the diaphragm and contraction of the muscles between the ribs


29.  

Which one of the following statements about the breathing methods of mammals and birds is true? (22.8)

The mammalian system can extract the larger amount of oxygen at a given partial pressure of O2.
Both are positive-pressure systems.
The system of mammals is negative-pressure, but birds have a positive-pressure system.
The gas exchange system of mammals is confined to the chest cavity, but that of birds is not.
Air flows unidirectionally in both groups.


30.  

What happens when the CO2 level from cellular respiration increases in the blood? (22.9)

Cellular respiration decreases.
A decrease in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid triggers the brain's breathing control centers, which stimulate diaphragm and rib muscle contractions.
The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid also increases and is detected by O2 sensors in arteries near the heart.
The O2 level automatically increases.
The medulla, moderated by the pons, signals the heart muscle to beat harder, bringing in more O2.


31.  

What causes CO2 in the blood to decrease? (22.9)

exercise
increased cellular respiration
hyperventilation
running
exercise and increased cellular respiration


32.  

Breathing in mammals is controlled by the __________, which monitors __________. (22.9)

hypothalamus ... blood CO2
cerebellum ... blood O2
hypothalamus ... blood pH
thalamus ... blood O2
medulla ... blood pH


33.  

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes leads initially to the urge to breathe again? (22.9)

rising oxygen concentration
rising carbon dioxide concentration
falling oxygen concentration
falling carbon dioxide concentration
none of the above


34.  

In the alveoli and lung capillaries, CO2 and O2 are exchanged by means of _____. (22.10)

diffusion
active transport
endocytosis
an exchange pump mechanism
osmosis


35.  

What adjustments would clearly make countercurrent exchange more efficient in extracting oxygen from water running through fish gills? (22.10)

hemoglobin with a greater affinity for oxygen
proportionally larger gills to body size
better ventilation
slower heart rate
warmer water


36.  

In the blood, most oxygen is carried _____. (22.10)

dissolved in the plasma
bound to water
carbonic acid
bicarbonate ions
bound to hemoglobin


37.  

Very specifically, the component of blood that carries oxygen is _____. (22.10)

iron
heme
hemoglobin
myoglobin
pons


38.  

Most oxygen is carried by the blood ____. Most carbon dioxide is carried by the blood ___. (22.11)

attached to hemoglobin ... in the form of bicarbonate ions
dissolved in the plasma ... dissolved in the plasma
in the form of H+ ions ... in the form of bicarbonate ions
attached to hemoglobin ... attached to hemoglobin
attached to hemoglobin ... dissolved in plasma


39.  

How does hemoglobin help to buffer the blood? (22.11)

It releases hydrogen ions into the blood when it binds to carbon dioxide.
It picks up hydrogen ions that are released when carbonic acid dissociates.
It picks up hydrogen ions when it releases oxygen to the body tissues.
It releases hemoglobin when it releases oxygen to the body tissues.
It picks up hydrogen ions when it binds to oxygen.


40.  

What stimulates a newborn to take its first breath? (22.12)

the detachment of the placenta
an increase in carbon dioxide levels and a decrease in the pH of the blood
the maturation of the brain that accompanies birth
the sucking of fluid out of the newborn's nose and mouth
exposure to the surrounding air that accompanies its birth

  

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