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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Chapter 4 study guide
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Sara would like to film the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Her best choice for a microscope would be a _____. (4.1) [Hint]

  light microscope, because of its resolving power
  transmission electron microscope, because of its magnifying power
  scanning electron microscope, because the specimen is alive
  transmission electron microscope, because of its great resolving power
  light microscope, because the specimen is alive


2 .       A magnified picture of the detailed architecture of cell surfaces can best be obtained from a _____. (4.1) [Hint]

  scanning electron microscope
  transmission electron microscope
  light microscope
  magnifying glass
  none of the above


3 .       The term "resolving power" refers to which of the following? (4.1) [Hint]

  the apparent increase in the size of an object
  the source of the illumination
  the depth of focus
  the clarity of the image in showing two objects as separate
  the type of cell being observed


4 .       A normal size range for a typical eukaryotic cell is _____. (4.2) [Hint]

  0.1 nanometers
  10 nanometers
  100 nanometers
  1–10 micrometers
  10–100 micrometers


5 .       The maximum size of a cell is limited by _____. (4.2) [Hint]

  its need for enough surface area to make exchanges with its environment
  the number of organelles that can be packed inside
  the materials needed to build it
  the amount of flexibility it needs to be able to move
  the amount of food it needs to survive


6 .       What do limits on maximum cell size depend on? (4.2) [Hint]

  the number of organelles
  surface-to-volume ratio
  number of surrounding cells
  amount of DNA in the nucleus
  thickness of the cell membrane


7 .       To enter or leave a cell, substances must pass through _____. (4.3) [Hint]

  a microtubule
  the Golgi apparatus
  a ribosome
  the nucleus
  the plasma membrane


8 .       Which of the following structures are NOT found in prokaryotic cells? (4.3) [Hint]

  flagella
  cell membranes
  mitochondria
  ribosomes
  RNA


9 .       Bacterial cells are prokaryotic; unlike a typical eukaryotic cell they _____. (4.4) [Hint]

  lack a nucleus
  have a smaller nucleus
  lack a plasma membrane
  have fewer internal membranous compartments
  have a greater variety of organelles


10 .       A certain cell has mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and other parts. Based on this information, it could NOT be _____. (4.4) [Hint]

  a cell from a pine tree
  a grasshopper cell
  a yeast (fungus) cell
  a bacterium
  actually, it could be any of the above


11 .       Which of the following are found in prokaryotic cells? (4.4) [Hint]

  Golgi apparatuses
  mitochondria
  nucleoli
  proteins
  all of the above


12 .       Which of the following would NOT be found in a cell's cytoplasm? (4.5) [Hint]

  a ribosome
  the nucleus
  a mitochondrion
  a microtubule
  fluid in which most organelles are found


13 .       What is the function of the nucleolus? (4.5) [Hint]

  to contain the hereditary blueprint of the cell
  to modify substances made on the endoplasmic reticulum
  to organize the spindle fibers for cell division
  to manufacture ribosomes
  none of the above


14 .       Most of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is in _____. (4.5) [Hint]

  the cytoskeleton
  the mitochondria
  the endomembrane system
  the cytoplasm
  the nucleus


15 .       A plant cell was grown in a test tube containing radioactive nucleotides, the parts from which DNA is built. Later examination of the cell showed the radioactivity to be concentrated in the _____. (4.5) [Hint]

  rough endoplasmic reticulum
  peroxisome
  smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  central vacuole
  nucleus


16 .       Three or four of the following cellular organelles possess membranes. Which one, if any, does NOT possess membranes? If all the listed organelles possess differentially permeable membranes, choose answer (5). (4.6) [Hint]

  nucleus
  chloroplasts
  mitochondria
  lysosomes
  all of the above


17 .       Which of these is NOT a function of the endomembrane system? (4.6) [Hint]

  division of the cell into compartments
  synthesis of molecules
  control center of the cell
  export of molecules
  storage of molecules


18 .       In muscle cells the ____ is/are specialized for the storage and release of calcium. (4.7) [Hint]

  mitochondria
  smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  the Golgi apparatus
  contractile vacuoles
  rough endoplasmic reticulum


19 .       Of the following organelles, which group is involved in manufacturing the substances needed by the cell? (4.8) [Hint]

  lysosome, vacuole, ribosome
  ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  vacuole, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, vacuole
  rough endoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, vacuole


20 .       Which one of the following organelles would be especially abundant in the pancreatic cells that produce digestive enzymes? (4.8) [Hint]

  rough endoplasmic reticulum
  smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  lysosomes
  microfilaments
  mitochondria


21 .       The rough endoplasmic reticulum can be considered to be in which general category of organelle? (4.8) [Hint]

  breakdown
  energy-processing
  manufacturing
  support between cells
  communication between cells


22 .       Membrane proteins are synthesized by ribosomes that are attached to _____. (4.8) [Hint]

  the Golgi apparatus
  mitochondria
  the nucleolus
  the endoplasmic reticulum
  lysosomes


23 .       When isolated liver cells are combined with toxins, initial processing in the ______________ increases the solubility of those compounds as an initial step in their excretion. (4.9) [Hint]

  smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  Golgi apparatus
  mitochondrion
  rough endoplasmic reticulum
  lysosome


24 .       You would expect a cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus to _____. (4.9) [Hint]

  make a lot of ATP
  secrete a lot of material
  move actively
  perform photosynthesis
  store large quantities of food


25 .       A researcher made an interesting observation about a protein made by the rough endoplasmic reticulum and eventually used to build a cell's plasma membrane. The protein in the membrane was actually slightly different from the protein made in the ER. The protein was probably altered in the _____. (4.9) [Hint]

  Golgi apparatus
  smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  mitochondrion
  nucleus
  chloroplast


26 .       Lysosomes are derived from _____________ and function in _____________. (4.10) [Hint]

  mitochondria ... anaerobic respiration
  the Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum ... digestion of worn-out organelles
  microtubule organizing centers ... storage of ATP
  symbiotic bacteria ... extrachromosomal inheritance
  nucleoli ... aerobic respiration


27 .       Which one of the following is the most likely consequence for a cell lacking functional lysosomes? (4.11) [Hint]

  The cell becomes crowded with undegraded wastes.
  The cell dies because its ATP-synthesizing mechanisms are missing.
  The cell dies from a lack of enzymes to catalyze metabolic reactions.
  The cell is unable to reproduce itself.
  The cell is unable to grow to a mature size and always remains small.


28 .       Which of the following statements describes the function of the contractile vacuole? (4.12) [Hint]

  It contains trapped bacteria to be digested by the lysosomes.
  It contains the cell sap.
  It eliminates excess water from the cytoplasm of freshwater protists.
  It converts light energy to chemical energy.
  It converts light energy to physical energy.


29 .       Chloroplasts are found in _____. (4.14) [Hint]

  plant cells and some protists
  animal cells only
  both plant cells and animal cells
  neither plant cells nor animal cells
  animal cells and bacterial cells but not in plant cells


30 .       Which cellular organelle is required for photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells? (4.14) [Hint]

  chloroplast
  nucleus
  lysosome
  Golgi apparatus
  mitochondrion


31 .       Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar in that they both _____________; they are different in that chloroplasts, but not mitochondria, _____________. (4.15) [Hint]

  have a double membrane ... carry out photosynthesis
  have many internal membranes that increase their internal surface area ... are found in plants
  have an internal 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules ... also have centrioles
  deal with energy transformations ... are found only in eukaryotes
  have a double membrane ... contain DNA


32 .       What are the inner folds of the mitochondria called? (4.15) [Hint]

  cristae
  matrix
  stroma
  grana
  tubules


33 .       The purpose of cellular respiration is the production of which of the following? (4.15) [Hint]

  ATP
  oxygen
  carbon dioxide
  glucose
  all of the above


34 .       Mitochondria appear in the greatest numbers in cells that are _____. (4.15) [Hint]

  reproducing
  metabolically active
  dead
  metabolically inactive
  undergoing cell division


35 .       The internal skeleton of a cell is composed of _____. (4.16) [Hint]

  microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments
  cellulose and intermediate filaments
  cellulose, microtubules, and centrioles
  microfilaments
  microfilaments and cellulose


36 .       When elongated, tube-shaped cells from the lining of the intestine are treated with a certain chemical, the cells sag and become round blobs. The internal structures disrupted by this chemical are probably _____. (4.16) [Hint]

  cell junctions
  microtubules
  rough endoplasmic reticulum
  mitochondria
  dynein arms


37 .       Where would you expect to find contractile proteins in a cell? (4.16) [Hint]

  lysosomes
  cytoskeleton
  nucleus
  smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  chloroplasts


38 .       The protein actin is a component of a(n) _____. (4.16) [Hint]

  intermediate filament
  microtubule
  tubulin
  microfilament
  organelle


39 .       Cilia and flagella move due to energy provided by the enzymatic breakdown of ATP by which of the following? (4.17) [Hint]

  actin
  pseudopodia
  basal bodies
  myosin
  dynein arms


40 .       Basal bodies are most closely associated with which one of the following cell components? (4.17) [Hint]

  bacterial flagella
  centrioles
  cilia
  the central vacuole
  mitochondria


41 .       Dye injected into a plant cell might be able to enter an adjacent cell through a _____. (4.18) [Hint]

  tight junction
  microtubule
  anchoring junction
  plasmodesma
  gap junction


42 .       The cell junctions in plant cells that provide channels between adjacent cells are generally _____. (4.18) [Hint]

  anchoring junctions
  gap junctions
  plasmodesmata
  tight junctions
  synapses


43 .       Your intestine is lined with individual cells. No fluids leak between these cells from the gut into your body. Why? (4.18) [Hint]

  The intestinal cells are fused together into one giant cell.
  The intestinal cells are bound together by plasmodesmata.
  The intestinal cells are bound together by tight junctions.
  The intestinal cells are bound together by gap junctions.
  The intestinal cells are bound together by anchoring junctions.


44 .       Which one of the following structures is directly involved in the passage of electrical signals between cells as, for example, in the vertebrate heart? (4.18) [Hint]

  gap junctions
  chemical synapses
  anchoring junctions
  tight junctions
  neuromuscular junctions


45 .       The general function of _____ is the breakdown of substances. (4.19) [Hint]

  chloroplasts
  ribosomes
  cell junctions
  peroxisomes
  Golgi apparatus

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