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DR. JAMES' BIOLOGY 150 and 152

Circulatory System Study Guide
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Chapter 23

Chapter 23   Circulation

 

A circulatory system is necessary in any animal

 

Transporting nutrients to body cells is the function of the ___________

 

The two basic types of circulatory systems that have evolved over time are

 

 Lack of distinction between blood and interstitial fluid is found in_________

 

 Adaptation to terrestrial life required major evolutionary changes. The change from_________was accompanied by important changes in the cardiovascular system.

 

A fish has a single circuit of blood flow and ______ chambers?

 

 A snake has a ________ chamber heart?

 

What is an example of convergent evolution?

 

 Which side of the heart sends blood to the lungs?

 

 In mammals, blood returning from the head will pass through the superior vena cava just before entering the ­­­_____?

 

 In mammals, the pulmonary vein transports ____________

 

____________blood is carried from the heart of a mammal to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries.

 

 Blood is pumped from the ______________by the right ventricle.

 

 From the___________, oxygen-rich blood flows through the aorta.

 

What is aorta?

 

Diastole is the phase of the heartbeat does the heart fill with blood.

 

 Cardiac output is defined as the volume of blood pumped by a ventricle each time it contracts.

 

 During ventricular systole, the semilunar valves open

 

Using a stethoscope, you listen to a beating heart and hear "____________." These sounds are created by valves in the heart closing.

 

The location of the heart's pacemaker is a specialized region of cardiac muscle called the

sinoatrial node.

 

The main function of the AV node is to  relay a signal for the ventricles to contract.

 

Myocardial infarction, also called a heart attack, is the damage or death of cardiac muscle tissue.

 

 

Cardiovascular disease is the cause of more than half of all deaths in the United States.

 

Arteries are distinguished from veins based on all of the following features

the direction of blood flow relative to the heart, the structure of their walls, and

the blood pressure.

 

Capillaries have _____walls.

 

In humans, veins are blood vessels that have___________

 

As blood moves away from the heart towards the tissues, the relative size of blood vessels _decreases, the blood pressure drops, and the velocity of blood flow slows down.

 

In veins in the head human blood vessels is the lowest blood pressure.

 

Capillaries have the lowest blood velocity?

 

Skeletal muscle contractions contribute to the flow of blood in veins.

 

Facts concerning blood pressure:

Normal blood pressure for adult humans is usually at or below 120/80.

High blood pressure can lead to an enlarged and weakened heart, increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure.

The higher number in a blood pressure reading measures the force of a heart contraction.

 

What can contribute to high blood pressure?

 

 At any given time, 510% of the body's capillaries have blood flowing through them?

 

Blood flow through capillaries is controlled by pre-capillary sphincters and smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles.

 

Capillaries are solely responsible for exchange between the blood and the interstitial fluid?

 

The diameter of a capillary is about the same as that of a red blood cell.

 

One way that substances move between blood and interstitial fluid is by pressure-driven flow through clefts between the epithelial cells of the capillary wall.

 

Whether there is a net flow of fluid into or out of a capillary at a given point along its length depends upon  the balance between blood pressure and osmotic pressure.

 


 The liquid part of blood is called plasma.

 

Cells make up about 45 percentage of total blood volume?

 

Plasma proteins are involved in all of the following activities: fighting infection, maintaining osmotic balance, blood clotting.

 

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are shaped like biconcave disks.

 

Monocytes and neutrophils cells are phagocytes.

 

Human red blood cells circulate in the blood 3 to 4 months before they wear out and have to be replaced.

 

 Iron deficiency is the most common cause of______________.

 

 An adult human's red blood cells are formed in the bone marrow.

 

 _________________can increase red blood cell concentration in a unit of blood.

 

 Blood clots are formed by platelets and the plasma protein fibrinogen.

 

_____________are sometimes used to treat certain blood cell diseases, such as leukemia.

 

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